1.) Cell Wall 2.) Large Vacuole 3.) Chloroplasts
The Cell Wall
The cell wall is similar to the in an animal cell but thicker and more protective. It expands and contracts also depending on the amount of space available in the cell based on the hydration of the cell.
Don’t get confused about the cell membrane though, because plant cells have cell membranes also… they just have an additional, thicker protective outside layer or membrane called a cell wall further outside of the cell membrane.
Fungi and also have cell walls, but I’m assuming you want to contrast animal cells to plant cells.
The Large Vacuole
Large vacuoles (sometimes called Central Vacuoles ) are often found in plant cell but not in animal cells. This is for the obvious need for a plant to hold water for long periods of time. The large vacuole absorbs water and stores it. The vacuole in a plant takes up the majority of space in the cell if hydrated.
Sometimes the vacuole can swell to take up an immense amount of space within a cell and push against the cell wall. This is called cell “swelling”.
Sometimes if too much water is absorbed by the vacuole, it will push against the wall of the cell too much and rupture it, killing the cell. This is called “cytolysis”.
While other types of cells in animals might have some small vacuoles to absorb water occasionally, only plant cells have large vacuoles that store water for long periods of time.
The chloroplast is the organelle of the plant cell which absorbs certain wavelengths of sunlight and, through , turns the reactants of carbon dioxide and water into glucose, which can be broken down for energy in the form of ATP- adenosine-tri-phosphate (the chemical responsible for most of the energy in your plant and animals).
You will find more chloroplasts in leave cells because those are the cells which need to absorb sunlight most efficiently.
Chloroplasts can get pretty detailed and you will most likely have a whole unit on photosynthesis and the reactions which take place inside of them. All you probably need to know for now is that chloroplasts take in sun and crank out chemical energy.
For this reason, chloroplasts are essential to life because all of the energy which we as humans consume starts from sunlight and is converted into chemical energy only through photosynthesis in the chloroplasts of plants.
That’s why biology is so stinking mind blowing… 🙂
Hope I helped.