A clause has a subject and a verb, but a phrase doesn’t have.
Mary sings a lullaby song to her baby.
Waking up early in the morning is not easy.
He wants to see her in person.
Her dog, a pug, pulled her blanket.
He hid behind the door.
His shield on fire, he panicked, pressing his controllers up and down and left to right.
A clause can be dependent or independent clause.
When Jacee heard his father’s condition, he ate his meal and finished it earlier than usual.
When Jacee heard his father’s condition is an adverbial clause.
But noticed the bolded words, it has a subject which is Jacee and a verb which is heard.
If when is omitted, it can stand alone as an independent clause.
However, placing when at the beginning of the clause has made it as a dependent clause which cannot stand alone like phrases.
Example sentence when when is omitted:
Jacee heard his father’s condition, so he ate his meal, and finished it earlier than usual.
As for the phrases, it lacks either a subject or a verb. But usually, it doesn’t have a subject or a verb.
There are eight types of phrases: noun, verb, gerund, infinitive, appositive, participial, prepositional, and absolute
Using the clause examples, here are the different types of phrases.
noun phrase – a lullaby song
verb phrase (has a verb * sings * but no subject) – sings a lullaby song
gerund phrase – waking up early in the morning
infinitive phrase – to see her in person
appositive phrase – Her dog, a pug , pulled her blanket.
participial phrase – pressing his controllers up and down and left to right
prepositional phrase – behind the door
absolute phrase (has a noun * shield * but no verb) – his shield on fire
Helpful link for phrases:http://examples.yourdictionary.com/phrase-examples.html