What is literary criticism? 

Reflect: In the Critical Literary Theories (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. handout, four different kinds of critical approaches are presented. Consider which of the four theories you find most interesting as a means for understanding literature.

Write: Your initial post should be at least 200 words in length. The minimum word count does not include references. Choose two of the critical approaches presented in the Critical Literary Theories (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. handout and address the points below.

What is literary criticism?


Literary Critical Theory is a tool that helps you find meaning in stories, poems and plays.  There are many different ways to interpret a novel or short story.


When we read literature, we do so to learn more about:  The human condition  The experience of loss and death    The structure of power in society and how it is implemented (including the issues that surround race and gender).  The psychology of characters and individuals in general  The sociology and history of cultures that produce specific pieces of literature


Literary Theory helps us discover the things listed above in the books and stories we read.


How do I apply Literary Critical Theory to read a book? So how do you use theory to read a book?  Before exploring, in brief, different theories, it is important to develop a reading strategy that will help you form ideas.

Woman Reading Book in a Landscape, Camille Corot

ENG125: Introduction to Literature


You should keep a reading notebook and write down ideas and information as you read.  Here is a checklist of things to notice:  Title:  How does it pertain to the story?  Does it symbolize events or people in the story?  Narration:  Who is telling the story?  How does the narrator approach the topic?    Subject:  What is the basic situation?  What is happening to the characters and how are they reacting to events?  Mood:  What is the mood of the story, i.e. the emotional background?   How is it expressed in the language and setting?  Characters:  What do the characters learn in the course of the story?  What are their failings and how do they overcome them, or not?  What is the main character’s desire?  Is that desire ever fulfilled?  How does the main character change?  Character Interaction:  How do the characters interact in the story?  How do they communicate with each other?  How do they handle conflict?  Plot: What are the main events in the plot that lead the character to new insights, or to his or her failure?


When you read a book, you can highlight the passages that strike you as significant.  You can also write notes in the margin of the text to yourself, which is called “annotation.”




ENG125: Introduction to Literature

What are the Critical Literary Theories? There are many different kinds of theories, including gender/feminist criticism; race theory; Marxist; Biographical; Deconstructism; Structrualism; Post-colonial critical theory. However, the four Critical Literary Theories that we will learn about in this class include:


 Formalism or New Criticism  Reader Response Theory  Psychological Theory  New Historicism Analysis


What is Formalism Theory or New Criticism?



This approach views each piece of literature as “a unique form of human knowledge that needs to be examined on its own terms” (Kennedy & Gioia, 1995).  Contained within the work itself are all the elements necessary for understanding it.  The formalist critic focuses on the form, including style, structure, tone, imagery, etc.   These critics analyze how certain elements work together within a text to impose certain effects on the readers.


Example:  Tim O’Brien’s story “The Things They Carry” (about his experience in the Vietnam War) is analyzed not by using his biography or history to interpret the story.  Instead, you look at all elements inside the work:  diction (use of language), character, plot, metaphor, and imagery.  Key questions a Formalist Critic asks:

Empire of Light by René Magritte


ENG125: Introduction to Literature

 How does the language and other literary elements convey a specific representation of the Vietnam War?    What are dominant metaphors and imagery and what do they symbolize?


What is Reader-Response Theory?


This approach views “literature” not as an artifact upon a printed page but as a transaction between the text and individual reader. It regards reading, like writing, as a creative process. This theory holds that there is no objective, outside meaning in any text.  According to Kennedy and Gioia (1995), reader response criticism focuses on “religious, cultural, and social values affect readings; it also overlaps with gender criticism in exploring how men and women read the same text with different assumptions.”


In other words, readers bring their own thoughts, views, experiences and attitudes to the text and interpret the story through a personal lens.  This critical theory is often used to discuss a text in a classroom setting where students are supposed to provide their own insights on the literature read.


Example:  You can easily apply this theory to “The Things They Carried.”  For instance, if you have experienced war, you can discuss it in relation to how O’Brien represents war.  If you were raised in the 1970s during the Vietnam War, you can reflect on your memory of that time period and use it to find meaning in the story.  If you have personal and religious ideas of war, you can use that to interpret the text.  Key questions a Reader Response critic asks:   How does the interaction between the text and reader create meaning?   How do the images and language in the work influence or affect the reader?  What shapes our knowledge of reading, what is our purpose of reading and how does that influence how we read a particular story, poem or novel?

The Reading, Frederico Zandomeneghi


ENG125: Introduction to Literature



What is Psychological Theory?


Based on the theories of Freud and Jung, this criticism centers on the psychology of the characters and analyzes character motivation, behavior and actions.  If you can figure out the protagonist’s psychology, then you can use that to interpret the text.  There are three main offshoots of this critical theory:


 It examines “the creative process of the artist: what is the nature of literary genius and how does it relate to normal mental functions?” (Kennedy & Gioia, 1995)   It investigates the psychology of particular writer usually focusing how an author’s biographical situations affect or influence their motivations and/or selection of theme and use of literary techniques.  It analyzes fictional characters using the concepts, terms and methods of psychological theories.


Example: To apply this theory to O’Brien’s short story you can ask explore the narrator’s psychology in the face of war; How does the Vietnam War influence, both negatively and positively, his psychology?  What does the soldiers’ behavior reveal about the psychological stresses of war?  Key questions a psychological critic asks:   What does the work suggest about the psychological aspects of the author?   Does the work have any hidden meanings, or subconscious elements that help to interpret the work?   How can characters’ actions be explained using theories of fear or attraction to death, or using the struggle between the id, ego and the superego?


ENG125: Introduction to Literature

What is New Historicism Analysis?


Here, you research the historical time period and discuss the work within its historical context.  As Kennedy and Gioria (1995) indicate, this theory “seeks to understand a literary work by investigating the social, cultural, and intellectual context that produced it—a context that necessarily includes the artist’s biography and milieu.”  The text serves as a “retelling of history” and might provide a radically different viewpoint that what is commonly known about an event, era and/or person.


Example: To analyze O’Brien, you’d research the Vietnam War, or a specific battle of that war, and analyze the story using historical fact and detail. Key questions a New Historicism critic asks:   How does the portrayal criticize the event and the political figures around it?   How does the text change meaning when read by a different generation that experiences different kinds of war?   What language/characters/events/setting reflect the current events, political and cultural, of the author’s time period?










Ancient text written in Latin


ENG125: Introduction to Literature



X.J. Kennedy, X.J. & Gioia, D.  (1995) Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, Sixth Edition.  New York: HarperCollins.


All images are gathered from Creative Commons.