Read the following responses from two of my classmates. Research on the topic and write a 150 words response to each indivudial, including instructive information as well as citations and references, APA Style. (If a web-page is for the research, include complete link) -First Discussion Topic:Premature infants and their challenges A premature baby is one who is born too early before 37 weeks. Premature babies may have more health problems and may need to stay later then usual in the hospital. Dr Siobhan Dolan Ob/Gyn specialists states infants may also have a long- term health problems due to premature birth that can affect their whole lives about 1 in 10 babies is born prematurely each year in the United States. Earlier in pregnancy a baby is born, the more likely the baby will have health problems. Some premature babies have to spend time at hospitals neonatal intensive care unit ( also called NICU). This is the part of a hospital that take care of sick newborns. A premature baby has a less developed immune system and fewer antibodies from the mother than a full term baby.. The immune system and antibodies are the body’s main defense against infection. A premature baby often requires a number of medical procedures, including insertion of intravenous (IV) lines, catheters, and endotracheal tubes and possibly assistance from a ventilator. Each time a procedure is performed, theres a chance of introducing bacteria, virus, or fungi into the baby system. Premature babies have breathing problem that are caused by an immature respiratory system.. Immature lungs in premature babies often lack surfactant. This substance is a liquid that cots the inside of the lungs and helps keep them open. Without surfactant, a premature babys lungs can’t expand and contract normally. This increases their risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Premature babies have long term complications cerebral palsy, vision, heart, dental, behavioral problems. Health Grove states over the 25 years, the global mortality rate due to preterm birth complications has gone down significantly. In 1990, the mortality rate due to preterm birth complications was 21.4 per 100,000 people. By 2015 that rate dropped to 10.0 per 100,00 people. Few premature birth complications can’t be prevented. NICU has saved a lot of lives and they will continue to do so. As a community we have to trust that the hospitals NICU will do anything to care for the babies and offer all the support needed. Reference: Dr. Siobhan Dolan OB/GYN March of Dimes https://www.marchofdimes.org Https://www.healthline.com premature birth complications -Second Discussion Topic: Common causes of birth defects. Birth defects is also called Congenital anomaly and not all Birth defect are noticeable at birth, in some cases the defect is seen months to years later. There are many ways defects are caused. Teratogens are agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus. The fetus can get this agent by three ways drugs, chemicals and radiation. I remember when i had to take an x ray, they would always ask if i was pregnant. That was one way to protect me from any Teratogens, Thalidomide is a Drug that also caused deformities. Many women had taken this drug to help them with morning sickness they also used this drug to help them fall asleep. Alcohol also cause birth defects it’s called Fetal alcohol Syndrome (FAS). You can easily notice people with this type of Birth defects you can usually tell by their small head, Malformed facial features poor attention span and a cleft palate. Mutagens are another cause of defect, its not the use drugs or by using the x ray machine that cause mutagens happens when there are problems with the DNA. Mutagens cause dwarfism, still birth and childhood cancer. A lot of Genetic disorder comes from failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis. In Prophase the chromosome normally pair up then separates from each other at anaphase 1 This is called disjunction.” According to Anatomy & Physiology Eighth Edition”. Non disjunction is the opposite of disjunction its when the chromosomes fails to separate, both chromosomes goes into the same daughter cell. Non disjunction is the cause of Turner Syndrome, Kline Felter syndrome. Triplo x syndrome and Down Syndrome. Triple X syndrone females are often times infertile and with intellectual impairments. Kline Syndrome are found in males they have an average intelligence, sparse body hair, long arms and long legs. About 97% of turner babies die at birth. According to Anatomy and Physiology Eight Edition. If they survive as children you cant really tell that they have this syndrome but as they grow you can recognize them with there webbed neck and spaced nipples. Lastly, Down syndrome is the most survivable syndrome the children and adults has physical & intellectual impairment. You can recognize them by there Flat face and flat nose, there tongue sticks out more than usual and fat fingers. Reference: Anatomy & Physiology Eighth Edition Publish by McGraw-Hill Education New York, NY 10121 Copyright 2018