Philosophy Intro to Ethics – multiple questions

I need answer for those 20 multiple choices questions for philosophy into ethics: 

Question 1 What is David Barash defining when he says, “the total of [living things’] reproductive success through their offspring plus that of their relatives”?

Question 2

When discussing whether two individuals will reciprocate altruism, Barash points out three important factors: benefit to the recipient of the act, cost to the altruist of the act, and what?

Question 3

Which of the following is NOT a conclusion that Ashworth draws from the experience of trench warfare in World War I?

Question 4

Does Malinowski’s report on “The Kula Ring” confirm the idea of reciprocal altruism?

Question 5

Which of the following ancient sources of ethics teaches “An eye for an eye?”

Question 6

Robert Trivers theorizes that early humans (hominids) evolved reciprocal altruistic behaviors because of their long lifespan and degree of mutual dependence. What do these two factors have in common?

Question 7

According to Trivers, if an individual is a “gross cheater” in a system of interactions characterized by reciprocal altruism, what is likely to happen to him or her?

Question 8

What is “TIT FOR TAT”?

Question 9

Hume’s “naturalistic fallacy” is the idea that

Question 10

What is Kant referring to when he says, “[it] is not good because of what it effects or accomplishes or because of its adequacy to achieve some proposed end; it is good only because of its willing, i.e. it is good of itself.”

Question 11

Hume, like Rousseau, thinks that our capacity for sympathy is basic to our moral life. According to Kant, when we perform our obligations because we are sympathetic to others, which of the following is true?

Question 12

By calling certain principles of ethics “axioms,” utilitarian Henry Sidgwick wants to imply that they are…

Question 13

Edward Westermarck thinks that, by and large, most of us in a givern society agree on most moral truths. Where there is difference, he says, there is…

Question 14

Does reason play a common-sense role in ethics? Thomas Nagel believes that when someone injures us or steals from us, more than our feelings are hurt. What does he believe, beyond this?

Question 15

Virginia Held believes that hitching moral truth to reason is basically a man’s invention. What, instead, does she favor as the bases for a feminist ethic?

Question 16

What phenomenon in evolutionary ethics does Robert Trivers spend his time documenting?

Question 17

What phenomenon in sexual ethics is Donald Symons describing in this passage? “It seems likely that parents (and perhaps other elder kin) have systematically attempted to inculcate one set of sexual attitudes in their daughters and another in their sons, since copulation exposes males and females to very different risks.”

Question 18

Who is the author of the following text? “”Since reason alone can never produce any action, or give rise to volition, I infer, that the same faculty is as incapable of preventing volition, or of disputing the preference with any passion or emotion. This consequence is necessary.”

Question 19

Who is the author of the following text? “The presumed objectivity of moral judgments thus being a chimera, there can be no moral truth in the sense in which this term is generally understood. The ultimate reason for this is, that the moral concepts are based upon emotions, and that the contents of an emotion fall entirely outside the category of truth.”

Question 20

Who offers us this story to illustrate a point about morality? “I will refer to a pupil of mine, who sought me out in the following circumstances. His father was quarreling with his mother and was also inclined to be a ‘collaborator’; his elder brother had been killed in the German offensive of 1940 and this young man, with a sentiment somewhat primitive but generous, burned to avenge him. His mother was living with him, deeply afflicted by the semi-treason of his father and by the death of her eldest son, and her one consolation was in this young man. But he, at this moment, had the choice between going to England to join the Free French Forces or of staying near his mother and helping her to live.”