please revise – need conclusion and better structure
Is smoking an example of a market failure? The Economics of Smoking, by Pierre Lemieux
After the economists’ analytical assault, the case for smoking regulations seemed pretty thin in the early 1990s. Then, a new argument was proposed by World Bank economist Howard Barnum. It relied on welfare economics, a field of neoclassical economic theory designed to show that “market failures,” created by external costs or other types of “externalities” (phenomena that bypass the market), prevent free markets from maximizing social welfare. The welfare-economics argument against smoking has since been refined by other economists working with the World Bank, and has provided the intellectual basis for the Bank’s 1999 report on the smoking “epidemic.”… The argument runs as follows. Smoking is not like other consumption choices, and the economic presumption of market efficiency does not apply. This is because, as the World Bank puts it, “many smokers are not fully aware of the high probability of disease and premature death,” and because of the addictive nature of tobacco.
Global warming and market failure. The Economics of Climate Change, by Robert P. Murphy
If the physical science of manmade global warming is correct, then policymakers are confronted with a massive negative externality. When firms or individuals embark on activities that contribute to greater atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, they do not take into account the potentially large harms that their actions impose on others. As Chief Economist of the World Bank Nicholas Stern stated in his famous report, climate change is “the greatest example of market failure we have ever seen.”…http://www.econlib.org/library/Topics/College/marketfailures.html