Post your responses to at least 2 of of the following 5 Qs by due date and also respond to at least another peer’s response with your comments and feedback by the same due date.
In our previous class discussions, we have stressed the importance of health and education/technology as the integral parts of the development process, where the role of women’s empowerment in key decision-making process of family affairs and population planning has been highlighted. As a follow up of that discussion, we can now look back and observe some of the important elements of sustainable economic development. A sustained growth rate of real GDP is one of them. The other integral factors that we have discussed are health care improvement for all citizens, education for disadvantaged women and children, elimination of child labor, preventing environmental degradation, rural development of agricultural transformation, promoting the freedom to choose and ownership rights of properties, and establishing democratic institutions with strong social settings of cooperation.
From the perspectives of the above integration of development strategy, critically discuss the following question regarding the issues of agricultural transformation and integrated rural development. Your answers is required to give examples of specific country case studies, which were discussed in relevant study materials for countries in Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.
1. Compare and contrast between the concepts of integrated rural development and agricultural transformation with specific example of a country or a region.
2. Briefly explain at least 5 major structural characteristics of agriculture of three regions: Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
3. Women bear a disproportionate burden in the agrarian system of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. In addition, their productivity is low. Explain these statements with specific examples from individual developing economies. What measures/policies have been implemented to deal with these two issues? Once again discuss with specific examples from individual developing economies.
4. What are some of the specific policies aimed at improving the productivity of women farmers in Kenya? Is it possible for adapting the same policy prescription for the productivity of women in India
5. What role should the governments play with respect to the agricultural sector in developing countries to align with new industrializations policy in their attempts to alleviate poverty?
This is the answer from my last assignment. (The following answers are based on Human Capital and Human Development in the context of Economic Development of Developing Nations)
Human Capital and Human Development
1: What is human capital and why is it so crucial to expanding human capital as part of the development process in developing countries? Give a concrete example(s) of specific countries as part of your answer to substantiate.
Human capital is described as human capabilities that raise efficiency. Specifically, human capital is centered on the level of training and wellbeing among society. As more human capital is aggregated, work efficiency increases, which is vital for constant development in the economy. Human capital is past physical work. It includes resources, for example, learning and experience. Now and again, more than physical capital, human capital turns out to be more essential. It is critical for the improvement procedure of a business. For instance, a man who has information and experience of telephones is superior to the person who does not agree with regards to viability. Human capital is a primary initial phase in taking advantage of unrecognized potential; that prompts better pioneers, more compelling chiefs, better choices, and a more remarkable degree of profitability.
Most of the developing countries are continually putting resources or rather investing in substantial facilities in high education. In any case, this appears to be awful for them since they are less ready to help higher tutored individuals to give unique work opportunities implying that there is a total brain drain in the nation, generally, diminishing the gains to society and raising the issue of home joblessness. For example, India has one of the quickest developing economies and putting high in its educational framework yet at the same time a large number of Indians are doing jobs in remote nations since they have been getting abundant offshore chances (Bhagavatula et al. pp 250). Essentially, Russian organization has additionally started its developments in advanced education, however, higher taught Russian are likewise looking for appealing openings for work in different countries.
2:Explain some of the reasons why developing countries have not realized a greater positive development impact from their higher education programs. In this context, why should the development of a solid elementary education system take precedence over an expansion of the university system in developing countries? Give a specific country example that you find in your readings for the relevant materials.
Developing nations invest intensely in the advanced education to develop a solid human capital base. Nonetheless, as a general rule there are sparse positive effects of such investment on the financial progress of the nation. Some of the reasons as to why developing countries have not yet realized a more significant positive development are because most of these countries tend to focus on higher learning when they are addressing or rather when dealing with issues that are affiliated to human capital in those nations (Escobar, pp 56). Additionally, these investments may not satisfy or rather pay off as anticipated, conversely, when investments in advanced education are not taken care of by expanded request for college-educated individuals in the labor force. Without the interest for these abilities, numerous educated individuals look for occupation somewhere else, and in this way add to a brain drain in the nation, hence decreasing the value to society that would be perceived had they turned out to be employed in their countries of origin.
Moreover, in this context, the development of a solid elementary education system should take precedence over an expansion of the university system in developing nations because the benefits from higher education cannot be achieved fully without having a firm base education. Essential training is imperative for showing youngsters fundamental aptitudes that will be helpful all through their whole lives (Johnson et al. pp 79). Primary education or essential training provides a superior rate of return than advanced knowledge, and benefits from extra primary training lessen less quickly than returns for additional higher learning. Additionally, there may not be sufficient high-aptitude occupations accessible to legitimize an investment in advanced education, yet low and medium-expertise employments that would require essential abilities like arithmetic and proficiency.
Additionally, sustainable education framework prerequisites equalization in work situations since enhancements in higher schooling would not support to develop the state beside it necessitates situating excessive fee on young people but unfortunately youths focus ahead for offshore possibilities due to limited chances in their home countries. In addition, its one of the distinguishing factor that ought to keep in mind and there may be requisite to make transition into strong elementary or rather primary education method that can assist to offer grades to anyone who is knowledgeable and can examine the human efficient skills, adaptability, creativity and values so that could make changes in the corporation’s financial system, communal awareness, public dogmas that can assist to offer better and sustain standard of living within the nation so that individuals that learned everything from its domestic state can now be able to put their efforts in its country and might make more opportunities for better future. Like; India ought to acquaint with a solid primary education so that they can analyze the general performance of college students and can provide them a job in the country so that can reduce the state of mind drain that may deliver long-term progressed benefits.
3:Explain how a better-educated population will also tend to be healthier, and vice versa, that a healthier population will tend to be better educated. In this context, how can an increase in human capital lead to an increase in GDP? Why might it not lead to an increase in GDP? Give a concrete example as part of your explanation to this question
High population does not prompt any development in affiliation with growth but, the healthier populace can help to bolster their improvement because it will deliver a positive impact in growth (Ross et al. pp 45). Furthermost, human capital is developed up via training that increases each individual’s capacity to comprehend their skills, flexibility, resourcefulness, and tenets and might help to upsurge financial development, social equity, sustainable growth and cultural values with regards to developing human cognizance that will consequently raise GDP whilst low education foundation could not bolster these outcomes and factors as demolishment in GDP. For example, In India, human beings stay in Delhi (Capital of India) are knowledgeable and developing faster when comparing to different states and that the humans can apprehend the sustainable growth of the nation in addition to the country whilst people from Uttar Pradesh (one kingdom of India) have low academic heritage, they are not even able to distinguish in between a bad or an excellent dogmatic leader.
Concisely, an expansion in human capital prompts increased adeptness, which prompts improved salary, which prompts better GDP. There are edge cases. An upsurge in human capital may not prompt an increment in GDP if organizations are weak, so the increment in human capital is just gathered at the best workers of the economy. Expanded human capital may not prompt expanded GDP if the expansion is packed in horticulture so that development will be little (Kubiszewski et al. pp 62)