I need 15 body pages following the outline, with work cited information from where the information came from following info, in each new paragraph.
Truth’s son, Peter was illegally sold into slavery in Alabama.
a. Previous to Isabel’s leaving her old master, he had sold her child.
b. The law expressly prohibited the sale of any slave out of the State
c. minors were to be free at twenty-one years of age
2. Sojourner Truth established herself as powerful speaker
a. Attended camp meetings to help her succeed with her mission of freedom and nonviolence.
b. Her involvement within the church helped build her leadership skills and knowledge of being an anti-slavery advocate and a woman right activist.
3. Faith and nonviolence with the power of GOD.
a. Sojourner Truth decided to walk a spiritual path in which she couldn’t be violent no matter what type of violence she had to face.
b. Sojourner Truth was a person who didn’t believe in physical abuse, fighting words, terroristic acts or the use of weapons; she practiced and demonstrated nonviolence.
(This is eleven body pages starting from here )
Sojourner Truth: The Great Antislavery Advocate
Born into slavery in 1797, Isabella Baumfree, who later changed her name to Sojourner Truth, would become one of the most powerful advocates to fight for human rights in the nineteenth century. In addition, she was separated from her family and sold several times before ending up on the farm of John and Sally Dumont. She was in the center of slavery most of the times. Having grown in slavery, she Clearly understood the pains that slaves go through. Masters were rude and in most instances mistreated the slaves. Promises given to slaves were barely honored. She recalls the promises she was given while a slave, and how her hopes in the promises were frustrated. Masters may be different though. Some are harsh than others. Nevertheless, the conditions for most slaves in the rural North were the same. The characteristics of the slavery surround around mistreatment, false promises, suffering, pain and such. Later Truth established herself as a speaker, against slavery. Before then, slavery was a legal institution in the United states. It was a legal trade. African Americans were in the middle of the questionable trade. Slavery was at its peak in the 18th and 19th century; the period following United States attainment of independence. However, it did not last well into the cold war period. The onset of slavery was after the initial Africans were brought from the northern America. By the 18th century, slavery was a common practice in the United States of America. The slaves worked for their masters. They were a source of cheap labor and therefore contributed immensely to the economic development of the United States of America. When the cotton gin was invented in early 1990s. people realized how important slaves were, in labor provision. She looks at the suffering that slaves go though and therefore stays motivated to speak about it. Slavery was a major challenge facing Black Americans at the times. The preceding period saw many African Americans as slaves under whites. In fact, many African Americans had reached the United States through slavery roots. Truth was separated from her family and sold several times before ending up on the farm of John and Sally Dumont. At the age of nine years, Sojourner Truth was sold as a slave. Her first master was John Neely; who was a farmer with huge farms. She was positioned in the farm settlement where she would easily access the farm and provide cheap labor. Sojourner Truth could not speak in English and therefore was severally beaten by John for her incapability to communicate in English. By virtue of her sharpness, Sojourner learned English as others talked as she listened. Nevertheless, the conditions for most slaves in the rural North were the same. Therefore, Isabella lived isolated from other African Americans. Although, she suffered from physical and sexual abuse by her enslavers (“Women’s Rights”, Web). The occupation of Sojourner Truth was an author as well as an abolitionist. She is famous and has a legacy as a slave who changed to fight for slavery abolition and fought for the rights of the female gender. Even though, her master failed to honor his promise to free her or to uphold the New York Anti-Slavery Law of 1827 Isabella ran away. She later informed her master, by saying “I did not run away, I walked away by daylight….”. Her spiritual beliefs guided her through and to her freedom safely (Foner, Garraty, Web). Furthermore, she births a child who was illegally sold under fraudulent acts of her old slave master. She has therefore been in the midst of slavery and therefore the woes of slavery are not unfamiliar to her. Meanwhile, she encounters happiness with a man she would, later on, marry and take on a different life with him standing by her in the fight for freedom for all African Americans. Her Husband was supportive to her in the fight against slavery. Isabella became more in-depth with her fight and became a member of the judicial process and also joined a church that would help her succeed in her mission for all to be free. This is due to the revolutionary power vested in religious groups as well as the lawmakers. As a member of a church and partaker of the judicial process, she was able to influence decisions about slavery. Isabella learns that her pastor is more powerful and well-known than she thought and all of his teachings is more benefit to her than just words. Last but not least, Isabella was forced to leave the city by those who promise to protect her and keep her safe it was clear that everything she undertook in the city was now proven a failure. Finally, Isabella ventured out independently and finds herself surrounded by people of less intelligence and no form of ideas but of the same color. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW) Thesis Answer: Sojourner Truth became an anti-slavery advocate (1) in 1826 when she learned that her son, Peter, had been illegally sold into slavery in Alabama; (2) while living in New York, Isabella attended the many camp meetings held around the city and she quickly established herself as a powerful speaker, capable of converting many with her (3) faith in nonviolence and God’s power to right the wrongs of slavery.
Having grown in slavery, she Clearly understood the pains that slaves go through. Masters were rude and in most instances mistreated the slaves. Promises given to slaves were barely honored. She recalls the promises she was given while a slave, and how her hopes in the promises were frustrated. Masters may be different though. Some are harsh than others. Nevertheless, the conditions for most slaves in the rural North were the same. The characteristics of the slavery surround around mistreatment, false promises, suffering, pain and such. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
As an African American, she was most of her time in the hands of masters as a slave. Therefore, Isabella lived isolated from other African Americans. She suffered from physical and sexual abuse by her enslavers (Olive, The Web). Even though, her master failed to honor his promise to free her or to uphold the New York Anti-Slavery Law of 1827 Isabella ran away. She later informed her master, by saying “I did not run away, I walked away by daylight….”. in 1825, her last master, Dumont made a promise to Sojourner Truth that, he would release her from slavery in a year. However, releasing her was the only option because it had been legislated that, all slaves be freed. Her spiritual beliefs guided her through and to her freedom safely. This was an expression of brevity. A lesson from this escape is that, slaves sometimes were compelled to fight for their own right rather than wait for empathy from the masters. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Isabella became more in-depth with her fight and became a member of the judicial process and also joined a church that would help her succeed in her mission for all to be free. As a member of the judicial process, she was involved in the legislative process. She used this as an avenue to ensure that, the rights of slaves were respected and granted. As a member of a church, Isabella learns that her pastor is more powerful and well-known than she thought and all of his teachings is more benefit to her than just words. Last but not least, Isabella was forced to leave the city by those who promise to protect her and keep her safe it was clear that everything she undertook in the city was now proven a failure. Finally, Isabella ventured out independently and finds herself surrounded by people of less intelligence and no form of ideas but of the same color. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
A little previous to Isabel’s leaving her old master, he had sold her child, a boy of five years, to a Dr. Gedney, who took him with him as far as New York city, on his way to England; but finding the boy too small for his service, he sent him back to his brother, Solomon Gedney. This man disposed of him to his sister’s husband, a wealthy planter, by the name of Fowler, who took him to his own home in Alabama. This illegal and fraudulent transaction had been perpetrated some months before Isabella knew of it, as she was now living at Mr. Van Wagener’s. The law expressly prohibited the sale of any slave out of the State, –and all minors were to be free at twenty-one years of age; and Mr. Dumont had sold Peter with the express understanding, that he was soon to return to the State of New York, and be emancipated at the specified time. (Olive, The Web).
In 1826, Isabella was living with the Van Wagenens, white Methodists, she had not been there long before her old master, Dumont, appeared, as she had anticipated; for when she took French leave of him, she resolved not to go too far from him, and not put him to as much trouble in looking her up–for the latter he was sure to do–as Tom and Jack had done when they ran away from him, a short time before. This was very considerate in her, to say the least, and a proof that ‘like begets like.’ He had often considered her feelings, though not always, and she was equally considerate. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
When her master saw her, he said, ‘Well, Bell, so you’ve run away from me.’ ‘No, I did not run away; I walked away by day-light, and all because you had promised me a year of my time.’ His reply was, ‘You must go back with me.’ Her decisive answer was, ‘No, I won’t go back with you.’ He said, ‘Well, I shall take the child. ‘This also was as stoutly negative. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Mr. Isaac S. Van Wagener then interposed, saying, he had never been in the practice of buying and selling slaves; he did not believe in slavery; but, rather than have Isabella taken back by force, he would buy her services for the balance of the year–for which her master charged twenty dollars, and five in addition for the child. The sum was paid, and her master Dumont departed; but not till he had heard Mr. van Wagener tell her not to call him master, –adding, ‘there is but one master, and he who is your master is my master.’ Isabella inquired what she should call him? He answered, ‘Call me Isaac Van Wagener, and my wife is Maria Van Wagener.’ Isabella could not understand this, and thought it a mighty change, as it most truly was a master whose word was law, to simple Isaac S. Van Wagener, who was a master to no one. With these noble people, who, though they could not be the masters of slaves, were undoubtedly a portion of God’s nobility, she resided one year, and from them she derived the name of Van Wagener; he being her last master in the eye of the law, and a slave’s surname is ever the same as his master; that is, if he is allowed to have any other name than Tom, Jack, or Guffin. Slaves have sometimes been severely punished for adding their master’s name to their own. But when they have no particular title to it, it is no particular offense. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
When she learned that her son, Peter, had been illegally sold into slavery in Alabama. Previous to Isabel’s leaving her old enslaver, he sold her five-year-old son. This illegal and fraudulent transaction had been perpetrated some months before Isabella knew of it. The law expressly prohibited the sale of any slave out of the State, –and all minors were to be free at twenty-one years of age; and Mr. Dumont had sold Peter with the express understanding, that he was soon to return to the State of New York, and be emancipated at the specified time (Olive, the Web). An outraged Isabella had no money to regain her son, but with God, on her side, she said she felt “so tall within as if the power of a nation was within [her].” She acquired money for legal fees and filed a complaint with the Ulster County grand jury. Peter was returned to her in the spring of 1828, marking the first step in a life of activism inspired by religious faith (Olive, The Web).
The state of New York, which had begun to negotiate the abolition of slavery in 1799, emancipated all slaves on July 4, 1827. The shift did not come soon enough for Truth. After John Dumont reneged on a promise to emancipate Truth in late 1826, she escaped to freedom with her infant daughter, Sophia. Her other daughter and son stayed behind. Shortly after her escape, Truth learned that her son Peter, then 5 years old, had been illegally sold to a man in Alabama. She took the issue to court and eventually secured Peter’s return from the South. The case was one of the first in which a black woman successfully challenged a white man in a U. S court. This is how she fought war against the slavery. She was concerned about kids that has been sold to masters as slaves in the United States. The antislavery laws have been installed and therefore she was concerned with proper implementation. Laws may exist but fail to be implemented sometimes. While the antislavery laws were existing, it was surprise that, there was still slavery existing. This is an implication of lack of stringent implementation. Sojourner Truth stood in the gap, to identify the cases that are still existing and make them face the law. The main reason for her concern can be identified as her personal experience with slavery. She had faced the pains of slavery and her son too. She had every reason to fight it. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Sojourner Truth’s early years of freedom were marked by several strange hardships. Having converted to Christianity, Truth moved with her son Peter to New York City in 1829, where she worked as a housekeeper for Christian evangelist Elijah Pierson. She then moved on to the home of Robert Matthews, also known as Prophet Matthias, for whom she also worked as a domestic. Matthews had a growing reputation as a con man and a cult leader. Shortly after Truth changed households, Elijah Pierson died. Robert Matthews was accused of poisoning Pierson in order to benefit from his personal fortune, and the Folgers, a couple who were members of his cult, attempted to implicate Truth in the crime. In the absence of adequate evidence, Matthews was acquitted. Having become a favorite subject of the penny press, he subsequently moved west. In 1835 Truth brought a slander suit against the Folgers and won.
While living in New York, Isabella attended the many camp meetings held around the city, and she quickly established herself as a powerful speaker, capable of converting many. She spoke of the need to end slavery. She emotionally talked of the pains that the slaves go through and gave reasons for the end of the vice. Her basis of the eradication of slavery remained God’s teachings and the judicial process. In 1843, she was “called in spirit” on the day of Pentecost. The spirit instructed her to leave New York, a “second Sodom,” and travel east to lecture under the name Sojourner Truth. This new name signified her role as an itinerant preacher, her preoccupation with truth and justice, and her mission to teach people “to embrace Jesus, and refrain from sin. After experiencing a religious conversion, Isabella became an itinerant preacher and in 1843 changed her name to Sojourner Truth. During this period, she became involved in the growing antislavery movement (This far by faith, web). She attained the name from her relentless efforts to ensure that slavery was completely stopped. Truth embraced evangelical religion and became involved in moral reform and abolitionist work. She collected supplies for black regiments during the Civil War and immersed herself in advocating for freed people during the Reconstruction period. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Sojourner Truth was a powerful and impassioned speaker whose legacy of feminism and racial equality still resonates today. She is perhaps best known for her stirring “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech, delivered at a women’s convention in Ohio in 1851 (Foner, Garraty, Web). Sojourner Truth first met the abolitionist Frederick Douglass while she was living at the Northampton Association. Although he admired her speaking ability, Douglass was patronizing of Truth, whom he saw as “uncultured.” Years later, however, Sojourner Truth would use her plain talk to challenge Douglass. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
At an 1852 meeting in Ohio, Douglass spoke of the need for blacks to seize freedom by force. As he sat down, Truth asked: “Is God gone?” Although much exaggerated by Harriet Beecher Stowe and other writers, this exchange made Truth a symbol for faith in nonviolence and God’s power to right the wrongs of slavery. Until old age intervened, Truth continued to speak passionately on the subjects of women’s rights, universal suffrage, and prison reform. She was also an outspoken opponent of capital punishment, testifying before the Michigan state legislature against the practice. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
On June 1, 1843, Isabella Baumfree changed her name to Sojourner Truth, devoting her life to Methodism and the abolition of slavery. In 1844, she joined the Northampton Association of Education and Industry in Northampton, Massachusetts. Founded by abolitionists, the organization supported a broad reform agenda including women’s rights. Members lived together on 500 acres as a self-sufficient community. Truth met a number of leading abolitionists at Northampton, including William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and David Ruggles.
Although the Northampton community disbanded in 1846, Sojourner Truth’s career as an activist and reformer was just beginning. In 1850 her memoirs were published under the title The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave. Truth dictated her recollections to a friend, Olive Gilbert since she could not read or write, and William Lloyd Garrison wrote the book’s preface. That same year, Truth spoke at the first National Women’s Rights Convention in Worcester, Massachusetts. She soon began touring regularly with abolitionist George Thompson, speaking to large crowds on the subjects of slavery and human rights. She was one of the several escaped slaves, along with Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman, to rise to prominence as an abolitionist leader and a testament to the humanity of enslaved people. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
In May of 1851, Truth delivered a speech at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention in Akron. The extemporaneous speech, recorded by several observers, would come to be known as “Ain’t I a Woman?” The first version of the speech, published a month later by Marius Robinson, editor of Ohio newspaper The Anti-Slavery Bugle, did not include the question “Ain’t I a woman?” even once. Robinson had attended the convention and recorded Truth’s words himself. The famous phrase would appear in print 12 years later, as the refrain of a Southern-tinged version of the speech. It is unlikely that Sojourner Truth, a native of New York whose first language was Dutch, would have spoken in this Southern idiom. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Truth continued to tour Ohio from 1851 to 1853, working closely with Robinson to publicize the antislavery movement in the state. As Truth’s reputation grew and the abolition movement gained momentum, she drew increasingly larger and more hospitable audiences. Even in abolitionist circles, some of Truth’s opinions were considered radical. She sought political equality for all women and chastised the abolitionist community for failing to seek civil rights for black women as well as men. She openly expressed concern that the movement would fizzle after achieving victories for black men, leaving both white and black women without suffrage and other key political rights. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Sojourner Truth put her reputation for working during the Civil War, helping to recruit black troops for the Union Army. She encouraged her grandson, James Caldwell, to enlist in the 54th Massachusetts Regiment. In 1864, Truth was called to Washington, D.C., to contribute to the National Freedman’s Relief Association. On at least one occasion, Truth met and spoke with President Abraham Lincoln about her beliefs and her experience. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
True to her broad reform ideas, Truth continued to agitate for change even after Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. In 1865, Truth attempted to force the desegregation of streetcars in Washington by riding in cars designated for whites. A major project of her later life was the movement to secure land grants from the federal government for former slaves. She argued that ownership of private property, and particularly land, would give African Americans self-sufficiency and free them from a kind of indentured servitude to wealthy landowners. Although Truth pursued this goal forcefully for many years, she was unable to sway Congress. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
On her death, the tomb was inscribed with words “is God dead?”. She died on 26, November, 1883 where she was at her home on college street on November. Her funeral service was reported to have been attended by about 1,000 people which was held at the Congregational-Presbyterian church. She was later buried at Oak Hill cemetery which is at Battle Creek. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Truth was embraced by a community of reformers including Amy Post, Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison, Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony—friends with whom she collaborated until the end of her life, Sojourner Truth died at her home in Battle Creek, Michigan, on November 26, 1883 (Foner, Garraty, Web).
Sojourner Truth was eminent in her time for her talking and singing capacity. As a man who could neither read nor compose, she had individuals perused to her, particularly the Bible, and from this she built up her special voice about how the world functioned and how it could be made strides. She seems like a sensible evangelist in a considerable lot of her discourses.
Maybe Sojourner’s most renowned discourse, and the one many individuals today know her for, was a discourse she conveyed in 1851 at a Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. It is an intense discourse however it was recorded by a few unique individuals at the time. The most well-known record of it is by Frances Gage, the leader of the tradition, who was there however didn’t record the discourse until 12 years after the fact. She put the discourse in southern lingo, however Sojourner never lived in the south and, in the event that anything, would have had a Dutch intonation, as Dutch was her first dialect. A columnist of the time recorded the discourse in an unexpected way. Both adaptations are underneath. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Sojourner Truth passed on her “Ain’t I a Woman?” talk in Akron, Ohio during the Women’s Rights Convention in year 1851. Her brief, essential talk which was rated to be an exceptional censure to various antifeminist disputes of the day. Moreover, it also advanced toward getting to be, and continues serving, as an incredible explanation of women’s rights. Truth advanced toward getting to be, and even today still picture of robust womankind.
Back in the year 1851, Truth went to the Ladies’ Rights Tradition situated at Ohio. According to Frances Gage, the pioneer of the Tradition, on the second day a couple of male ministers showed up and battled that women should not have a vague right from men. The ministers’ reasoning: women were delicate, men were rationally superior to women, Jesus was a man, and our first mother trespassed. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Sojourner had rose she would have passed on her short, magnificent speech which was invoking statutes of Christians amidst contractions from a segment of woman who feared she would talk about invalidation. In her talk, she used a strong and compelling closeness basically to uncover the clerics disputes. Showing her especially manufactured arms and insinuating the constant labor that she was executed as a slave. She professed articulated the saying “And aint I a Woman?” with some regards to the fact that Jesus was a man, He had begun from a woman. Nevertheless, she turned down the wrongdoing of eve which was a conflict and she said that if one woman could bring down the entire world into a saga, then the women united can bring it to the prior original place. (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
The New York Telegram of Nov. 27, in noticing the death of Sojourner Truth, has the following dispatches from two of her distinguished co-laborers: —
WASHINGTON, Nov. 27. –In the death of Sojourner Truth, a marked figure has disappeared from the earth. Venerable for age, distinguished for insight into human nature, remarkable for independence and courageous self-assertion, devoted to the welfare of her race, she has been for the last forty years an object of respect and admiration to social reformers everywhere (Narrative of Sojourner Truth Truth, Sojourner, d. 1883 Gilbert, Olive 144 p., ill. Boston J). (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
BOSTON, Nov. 27. –Sojourner Truth was a remarkable figure in the anti-slavery movement, almost the only speaker in it who had once been a slave in a Northern State. Her Meg Merrill’s figure added much to the effect of her speech. Her natural wit and happiness in retort I have hardly ever seen equaled. Her eloquence was at times marvelous. I once heard her describe the captain of a slave ship going up to judgment followed by his victims as they gathered from the depth of the sea, in a strain that reminded me of Clarence’s dream in Shakespeare, and equaled it. The anecdotes of her ready wit and quick, striking replies are numberless. But the whole together give little idea of the rich, quaint, poetic, and often profound speech of a most remarkable person, who used to say to us, “You read books; God himself talks to me”(Narrative of Sojourner Truth Truth, Sojourner, d. 1883 Gilbert, Olive 144 p., ill. Boston J). (SOURCE???? – SEE #13 BELOW)
Turn the pages in this order: (1) cover page, (2) research proposal paragraph, (3) sentence outline, (4) FifTEEN body pages and (5) works cited page, as indicated at the bottom of this document.
STAPLE THE PAGES IN THE INDICATED ORDER OF 1 THROUGH 5!
Read ALL of the information below before you begin to write.
PLEASE HAND IN YOUR PAGES STAPLED TOGETHER IN THE FOLLOWING ORDER:
1. Cover Page
2. Research Proposal paragraph
3. Sentence Outline
4. FiFTEEN BODY pages of the body
5. Works Cited page